Utilitarianism is an ethical theory holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes the overall happiness. It is thus a form of consequentialism, meaning that the moral worth of an action is determined only by its resulting outcome, and that one can only weigh the morality of an action after knowing all its consequences.
Transhumanism is an international intellectual and cultural movement that affirms the possibility and desirability of fundamentally transforming the human condition by developing and making widely available technologies to eliminate aging and to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. Transhumanist thinkers study the potential benefits and dangers of emerging technologies that could overcome fundamental human limitations, as well as study the ethical matters involved in developing and using such technologies.
Teleology is any philosophical account that states final causes (purposes, aims, goals) exist in nature, meaning that design and purpose analogous to that found in human actions are inherent also in the rest of nature.
Tautology is an unnecessary repetition of meaning, using dissimilar words that effectively say the same thing. A rhetorical tautology can also be defined as a series of statements that comprise an argument, whereby the statements are constructed in such a way that the truth of the proposition is guaranteed, or that the truth of the proposition cannot be disputed, by defining a dissimilar or synonymous term in terms of another self-referentially. Tautologies play a role in analytic discussions of logic and what it is possible to know.
Stoicism taught that destructive emotions resulted from errors in judgment, and that a sage, or person of moral and intellectual perfection, would not suffer such emotions. Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life, and they thought that the best indication of an individual’s philosophy was not what a person said but how they behaved.
Carpe diem, (Latin: “pluck the day” or “seize the day”) phrase used by the Roman poet Horace to express the idea that one should enjoy life while one can.
Philosophical skepticism is an approach that denies the possibility of certainty in knowledge, whereas methodological skepticism is an approach that subjects all knowledge claims to scrutiny with the goal of sorting out true from false claims. Skeptics critically examine meaning systems. Skeptical examination often results in a position of ambiguity or doubt.
Scientism refers to a belief in the universal applicability of the scientific method and approach, and the view that empirical science constitutes the most authoritative worldview or most valuable part of human learning to the exclusion of other viewpoints. Scientism describes the dogmatic endorsement of scientific methodology and the reduction of all knowledge to only that which is measurable.
Romanticism was an artistic revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature. Romanticism placed new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror, terror, and awe – especially that which is experienced in confronting the sublimity of untamed nature. Romanticism was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which prized intuition and emotion over Enlightenment rationalism.
Realism is the belief that reality is independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. Philosophers who profess realism state that truth consists in the mind’s correspondence to reality. Realists tend to believe that whatever we believe now is only an approximation of reality and that every new observation brings us closer to understanding reality.