The star and crescent symbol originated in Sumeria. The moon was associated with the god Sin and the star with the goddess Ishtar. The star was set beside the crescent moon. The star represents Venus and the crescent represents the moon. The star crescent symbolized power.
The star crescent was also found in Greece where it was used to represent the moon goddesses, Luna and Diana. The crescent is pointed upward and the star is directly above the moon. It was a symbol of virginity and female chastity.
In the early Roman period, the star crescent was associated with the goddess Hecate.
The star crescent symbol was also used in early Christianity. It was found on coins and seals used by the crusaders.
The star crescent symbol became prevalent in the Ottoman Empire after 1757. The national flag bore a crescent with a star beside it. This symbol was used in mosques and minarets which led to the association with Islam. However, not all Muslims associate the star and crescent with Islam.
Today the star and crescent can be found on flags in Turkey, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Malaysia, Mauritania, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Northern Cyprus, and Um al-Quwain. It also appears on numerous coats of arms.
Paraphernalia /ˌparəfəˈneɪlɪə ~ Miscellaneous articles, especially the equipment needed for a particular activity. Trappings associated with a particular institution or activity that are regarded as superfluous.
A doppelgänger (/ˈdɒpəlɡɛŋər, -ɡæŋər/; German: ˈdɔpl̩ˌɡɛŋɐ, literally “double-walker”) is a biologically unrelated look-alike, or a double, of a living person. In fiction and mythology, a doppelgänger is often portrayed as a ghostly or paranormal phenomenon and usually seen as a harbinger of bad luck.
The chameleon effect refers to nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one’s interaction partners, such that one’s behavior passively and unintentionally changes to match that of others in one’s current social environment.
Cultural Differences Someone’s cultural background can have a big influence on how they use and read body language. In many Western cultures, eye contact while speaking suggests openness and interest. People of other cultures, including many Eastern cultures, may avoid prolonged eye contact, as looking slightly down or to the side may seem more respectful. Nodding indicates agreement in many cultures. In others, it might just mean the other person acknowledges your words.
Developmental Differences Neurodiverse people may also use and interpret body language differently than neurotypical people do. For example, you might fidget when you’re bored, but neurodiverse people might fidget in order to increase focus, calm nervousness, or self-soothe in other ways. Autistic people may also have trouble reading body language.
Psychological Differences Certain mental health conditions can also impact someone’s body language. Someone with social anxiety might find it extremely hard to meet and hold someone’s gaze, for example.People who prefer to avoid touching others may not shake hands or embrace when greeting someone. Being aware of boundaries some people may have around casual touch can help you avoid assuming someone dislikes you.
Malacology: The study of molluscs Mammalogy: The study of mammals Meteorology: The study of weather Methodology: The study of methods Metrology: The study of measurement Microbiology: The study of micro-organisms Micrology: The science of preparing and handling microscopic objects Mineralogy: The study of minerals Mycology: The study of fungi Myology: The study of muscles Myrmecology: The study of ants Nanotechnology: The study of machines at the molecular level Nanotribology: The study of friction on the molecular and atomic scale Nematology: The study of nematodes (roundworms) Neonatology: The study of newborn infants Nephology: The study of clouds Nephrology: The study of the kidneys Neurology: The study of nerves Neuropathology: The study of neural diseases Neurophysiology: The study of the functions of the nervous system Nosology: The study of disease classification Oceanology: The study of oceans Odonatology: The study of dragonflies and damselflies Odontology: The study of the teeth Oncology: The study of cancer Oology: The study of eggs Ophthalmology: The study of the eyes Ornithology: The study of birds Orology: The study of mountains and their mapping Orthopterology: The study of grasshoppers and crickets Osteology: The study of bones Otolaryngology: The study of the ear and throat Otology: The study of the ear Otorhinolaryngology: The study of the ear, nose, and throat
Hematology: The study of blood Heliology: The study of the sun Helioseismology: The study of vibrations and oscillations in the sun Helminthology: The study of parasitic worms Hepatology: The study of the liver Herbology: The study of the therapeutic use of plants Herpetology: The study of reptiles and amphibians Heteroptology: The study of true bugs Hippology: The study of horses Histology: The study of living tissues Histopathology: The study of the microscopic structure of diseased tissue Hydrogeology: The study of underground water Hydrology: The study of water Ichnology: The study of fossil footprints, tracks, and burrows Ichthyology: The study of fish Immunology: The study of the immune system Karyology: The study of karyotypes (a branch of cytology) Kinesiology: The study of movement in relation to human anatomy Kymatology: The study of waves or wave motions Laryngology: The study of the larynx Lepidopterology: The study of butterflies and moths Limnology: The study of freshwater environments Lithology: The study of rocks Lymphology: The study of the lymph system and glands
The arms and legs can also be useful in conveying nonverbal information. Crossing the arms can indicate defensiveness. Crossing legs away from another person may indicate dislike or discomfort with that individual.
Other subtle signals such as expanding the arms widely may be an attempt to seem larger or more commanding while keeping the arms close to the body may be an effort to minimize oneself or withdraw from attention.
When you are evaluating body language, pay attention to some of the following signals that the arms and legs may convey ~
~Crossed arms might indicate that a person feels defensive, self-protective, or closed-off. ~Standing with hands placed on the hips can be an indication that a person is ready and in control, or it can also possibly be a sign of aggressiveness. ~Clasping the hands behind the back might indicate that a person is feeling bored, anxious, or even angry. ~Rapidly tapping fingers or fidgeting can be a sign that a person is bored, impatient, or frustrated. ~Crossed legs can indicate that a person is feeling closed off or in need of privacy