Tag Archives: history

Philosophy {13} ~ The Mind-Body Problem

The mind-body problem arises because mental phenomena arguably differ, qualitatively or substantially, from the physical body on which they apparently depend. There are a few major theories on the resolution of the problem. Dualism is the theory that the mind and body are two distinct substances, and monism is the theory that they are, in reality, just one substance. Monist materialists/physicalists take the view that they are both matter, and monist idealists take the view that they are both in the mind. The absence of an empirically identifiable meeting point between the non-physical mind and its physical extension has proven problematic to dualism and many modern philosophers maintain that the mind is not something separate from the body.

~Bread & Circuses {See The Parallels In Current Times?}~

In a political context, the phrase means to generate public approval, not by excellence in public service or public policy, but by diversion, distraction or by satisfying the most immediate or base requirements of a populace — by offering a palliative: for example food (bread) or entertainment (circuses).

The government of Rome took measures to distract and control the masses of Rome by providing free games, races, fake battles, and the gladiator contests.

The term “bread and circuses” is used to describe efforts by those in power to retain the favor of the masses, or the common man, by bribing and distracting them with free gifts and amusements..

See the parallels in our current times?

Civilizations {11} ~ The Inca Empire

~Centered in Cusco, the Inca Empire extended from modern-day Chile to modern-day Colombia.

~Inca society was sophisticated, and boasted around seventy different crops across the empire’s various climates.

~The Inca considered finely woven textiles to be an essential commodity, and spun various grades of cloth from llama and vicuña wool.

Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldcivilization/chapter/the-inca-people/

Mythology {3} ~ Gods & Goddesses {2} ~ The Greeks

ACHELOUS
The patron god of the “silver-swirling” Achelous River.

AEOLUS
Greek god of the winds and air

AETHER
Primordial god of the upper air, light, the atmosphere, space and heaven.

ALASTOR
God of family feuds and avenger of evil deeds.

APOLLO
Olympian god of music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light and knowledge.

ARES
God of war. Represented the physical, violent and untamed aspect of war.

ARISTAEUS
Minor patron god of animal husbandry, bee-keeping, and fruit trees. Son of Apollo.

ASCLEPIUS
God of medicine, health, healing, rejuvenation and physicians.

ATLAS
The Primordial Titan of Astronomy. Condemned by Zeus to carry the world on his back after the Titans lost the war.

ATTIS
A minor god of vegetation, fruits of the earth and rebirth.

BOREAS
A wind god (Anemoi) and Greek god of the cold north wind and the bringer of winter. Referred to as “The North Wind”.

CAERUS
Minor god of opportunity, luck and favorable moments.

CASTOR
One of the twins, Castor and Pollux, known as Dioskouri. Zeus transformed them into the constellation Gemini

CERUS
The large and powerful wild bull tamed by Persephone and turned into the Taurus constellation.

CHAOS
The nothingness that all else sprung from. A god who filled the gap between Heaven and Earth and created the first beings Gaia, Tartarus, Uranus, Nyx and Erebos.

CHARON
The Ferryman of Hades. Took the newly dead people across the rivers Styx and Acheron to the Greek underworld if they paid him three obolus (a Greek silver coin).

CRONOS
The god of time. Not to be confused with Cronus, the Titan father of Zeus.

CRIOS
The Titan god of the heavenly constellations and the measure of the year..

CRONUS
God of agriculture, leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans and father of the Titans. Not to be confused with Cronos, god of time.

DINLAS
Guardian god of the ancient city Lamark, where wounded heroes could find comfort and heal after battle. He was the son of Aphrodite.

DEIMOS
Deimos is the personification of dread and terror.

DIONYSUS
An Olympian god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, religious ecstasy and theatre.

EREBUS
Primordial god of darkness.

EROS
God of sexual desire, attraction, love and procreation.

EURUS
One of the wind god known as Anemoi and god of the unlucky east wind. Referred to as “The East Wind”.

GLAUCUS
A fisherman who became immortal upon eating a magical herb, an Argonaut who may have built and piloted the Argo, and became a god of the sea.

HADES
God of the Dead and Riches and King of the Underworld.

HELIOS
God of the Sun and also known as Sol.

HEPHAESTUS
God of fire, metalworking, stone masonry, forges and the art of sculpture. Created weapons for the gods and married to Aphrodite.

HERACLES
The greatest of the Greek heroes, he became god of heroes, sports, athletes, health, agriculture, fertility, trade, oracles and divine protector of mankind. Known as the strongest man on Earth.

HERMES
God of trade, thieves, travelers, sports, athletes, and border crossings, guide to the Underworld and messenger of the gods.

HESPERUS
The Evening Star – the planet VENUS in the evening.

HYMENAIOS
God of marriage ceremonies, inspiring feasts and song.

HYPNOS
The Greek god of sleep.

KRATOS
God of strength and power.

MOMUS
God of satire, mockery, censure, writers and poets and a spirit of evil-spirited blame and unfair criticism.

MORPHEUS
God of dreams and sleep – has the ability to take any human form and appear in dreams.

NEREUS
The Titan god of the sea before Poseidon and father of the Nereids (nymphs of the sea).

NOTUS
Another Anemoi (wind god) and Greek god of the south wind. Known as “The South Wind”.

OCEANUS
Titan god of the ocean. Believed to be the personification of the World Ocean, an enormous river encircling the world.

ONEIROI
Black-winged daimons that personified dreams.

PAEAN
The physician of the Olympian gods.

PALLAS
The Titan god of warcraft and of the springtime campaign season.

PAN
God of nature, the wild, shepherds, flocks, goats, mountain wilds, and is often associated with sexuality. Also a satyr (half man, half-goat).

PHOSPHORUS
The Morning Star – THE PLANET VENUS as it appears in the morning.

PLUTUS
The Greek god of wealth.

POLLUX
Twin brother of Castor, together known as the Dioskouri, that were transformed into the constellation Gemini.

PONTUS
ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god of the deep sea, one of the Greek primordial deities and son of Gaia.

POSEIDON
Olympian Greek god of the sea, earthquakes, storms, and horses.

PRIAPUS
Minor rustic fertility god, protector of flocks, fruit plants, bees and gardens and known for having an enormous penis.

PRICUS
The immortal father of sea-goats, made into the Capricorn constellation.

PROMETHEUS
Titan god of forethought and crafty counsel who was given the task of moulding mankind out of clay.

PRIMORDIAL
A group of gods that came before all else.

TARTARUS
The god of the deep abyss, a great pit in the depths of the underworld, and father of Typhon.

THANATOS
A minor god and the god of death.

TRITON
Messenger of the sea and the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite.

TYPHON
The deadliest MONSTER in Greek mythology and “Father of All Monsters”. Last son of Gaia, fathered by Tartarus and god of monsters, storms, and volcanoes. He challenged Zeus for control of Mount Olympus.

URANUS
Primordial god of the sky and heavens, and father of the Titans.

ZELUS
The god of dedication, emulation, eager rivalry, envy, jealousy, and zeal.

ZEPHYRUS
A wind god (Anemoi). God of the west wind and known as “The West Wind”.

ZEUS
God of the sky, lightning, thunder, law, order, justice, King of the Gods and the “Father of Gods and men”.

Source: https://greekgodsandgoddesses.net/gods/

Civilizations {8} ~ The Mongol Empire

~The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest land empire in history.

~The empire unified the nomadic Mongol and Turkic tribes of historical Mongolia.

~The empire sent invasions in every direction, ultimately connecting the East with the West with the Pax Mongolica, or Mongol Peace, which allowed trade, technologies, commodities, and ideologies to be disseminated and exchanged across Eurasia.

~The Mongol raids and invasions were some of the deadliest and most terrifying conflicts in human history.

~Ultimately, the empire started to fragment; it dissolved in 1368, at which point the Han Chinese Ming Dynasty took control.

Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldcivilization/chapter/overview-of-the-mongol-empire/

Civilizations {7} ~ The Indus Valley Civilization

~The Indus Valley Civilization (also known as the Harappan Civilization) was a Bronze Age society extending from modern northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

~The civilization developed in three phases: Early Harappan Phase (3300 BCE-2600 BCE), Mature Harappan Phase (2600 BCE-1900 BCE), and Late Harappan Phase (1900 BCE-1300 BCE).

~Inhabitants of the ancient Indus River valley developed new techniques in handicraft, including Carnelian products and seal carving, and metallurgy with copper, bronze, lead, and tin.

~Sir John Hubert Marshall led an excavation campaign in 1921-1922, during which he discovered the ruins of the city of Harappa. By 1931, the Mohenjo-daro site had been mostly excavated by Marshall and Sir Mortimer Wheeler. By 1999, over 1,056 cities and settlements of the Indus Civilization were located.

Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldcivilization/chapter/the-indus-river-valley-civilization/

Civilizations {3} ~ The Assyrians

~Centered on the Upper Tigris river in northern Mesopotamia, the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times, the last of which grew to be the largest and most powerful empire the world had yet seen.

~At its peak, the Assyrian empire stretched from Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea to Persia, and from the Caucasus Mountains (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan) to the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt. It was at the height of technological, scientific, and cultural achievements for its time.

~In the Old Assyrian period, Assyria established colonies in Asia Minor and the Levant, and asserted itself over southern Mesopotamia under king Ilushuma.

~Assyria experienced fluctuating fortunes in the Middle Assyrian period, with some of its kings finding themselves under the influence of foreign rulers while others eclipsed neighboring empires.

~Assyria became a great military power during the Neo-Assyrian period, and saw the conquests of large empires, such as Egyptians, the Phoenicians, the Hittites, and the Persians, among others.

~After its fall in the late 600s BCE, Assyria remained a province and geo-political entity under various empires until the mid-7th century CE.

Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldcivilization/chapter/the-sumerians/