Bhojana is a Sanskrit word that means “food,” “meal” and “enjoyment.” Even though bhojana is most often associated with eating, it can refer to the enjoyment of food through sensory impressions, such as smell and sight. In the spiritual traditions that originated in India, bhojana plays a key role in worship, life and even medicine.
In the life of a devout Hindu, bhojana is an important part of the daily routine and is considered a divine act in itself. In Hindu worship, food is offered to the deities and then distributed to the faithful at the end of the service. In Ayurveda, dietary regimens based on the seasons are used to prevent illness and dietary changes are prescribed for healing.
Indriya is a term in Indian philosophy that refers to the sensory, spiritual or phenomenological faculties. It is a Sanskrit and Pali word that translates as “belonging to/agreeable to Indra,” who is the king of the gods in the “Rig Veda.”
In Buddhism, the term refers to the five spiritual faculties, five or six sensory faculties or 22 phenomenological faculties, depending on the context. In yogic philosophy, it refers to the five sense organs, the five action organs and the mind.
A traditional greeting, Namaste is a combination of two Sanskrit terms: namah (“I bow respectfully to you.”) and aste (“Let there be.”). Namaste is often spoken with a corresponding gesture. In this gesture, the head is slightly bowed and the palms are pressed together against the heart.
For many, Namaste is deeply spiritual. It refers to the belief in a divine spark that exists in all living beings. In the West, Namaste is often heard at the end of a yoga session. It translates to “The divine in me honors the divine in you.”
Namaste is more than a mere formality. It is a heartfelt expression of love and compassion. Saying Namaste with a sense of grace and humility gives birth to something beautiful: a moment in which one soul recognizes another.
The Law of Divine Oneness is the foundational law, according to which absolutely everything in our universe is interconnected. In other words, every choice, word, desire, and belief you have will also have an impact on the world, and on the people in your life.
Sometimes this impact will be immediate and obvious. At other times, it may take a while to manifest, or you may never even discover that it has occurred. Try to think of yourself as part of everything around you to live in accordance with this law. We are all one, and awareness of this makes us more powerful as well as more empathetic.
~The Chavín civilization developed in the northern Andean highlands of Peru between 900-250 BCE.
~There were three stages of development: Urabarriu (900-500 BCE), Chakinani (500-400 BCE), and Jarabarriu (400-250 BCE).
~Chavín had a small, powerful elite that was legitimized through a claim to divine authority.
~The chief example of Chavín architecture is the Chavín de Huántar temple, the design of which displays a complex and innovative adaptation to the highland environment of Peru.
~The Chavín people showed advanced knowledge of acoustics, metallurgy, soldering, and temperature control. One of their main economic resources was ch’arki, or llama jerky.
~Chavín art represents the first widespread, recognizable artistic style in the Andes, and can be divided into two phases: the first phase corresponds to the construction of the “Old Temple” at Chavín de Huántar (c. 900-500 BCE); the second phase corresponds to the construction of Chavín de Huántar’s “New Temple” (c. 500-200 BCE). Significant pieces of art include the Lanzón, Tello Obelisk, and tenon heads.
Bhagwan is a Hindu term that refers to “god” or “lord,” particularly Krishna and other Vishnu incarnations, as well as Shiva. It is also a title of honor bestowed upon a guru or some other revered individual. In northern India, the term may represent the abstract concept of god to those Hindus who do not worship a specific deity. In some sects, it is an honorific for a spiritual leader that the sect considers enlightened.
Bhagwan comes from the Sanskrit bhaga, meaning “fortune” or “wealth.” It translates as “fortunate” and “blessed.” The term is also spelled bhagavan, bhagvan and bhagawan.
Koshas are the five layers of awareness that veil the Atman, or true Self. Discovering each layer is believed to bring the individual closer to oneness with the universe and the true Self.
In Sanskrit, kosha means “sheath” or “covering.” As such, the koshas are often called the five sheathes. The Upanishads describe the koshas as a system of five layers of awareness, starting with the physical body and moving inward to the core of the self.
The practice of yoga takes the individual deeper into the self through the koshas that make up one’s being, thereby bringing one closer to the true Self.
Granthi is a Sanskrit term meaning “doubt” or “knot;” more specifically, it denotes “a difficult knot to untie.” The term is found in yogic literature and refers to knotted areas of energy, which can block the flow of prana in the body. In Kundalini yoga, it is said that granthis can be responsible for preventing prana from rising up through sushumna nadi (the central channel of the energetic body). As such, these knots prevent one’s full potential from being unleashed and restricts spiritual development. They are barriers to freedom and spiritual liberation (moksha).
It is said that these difficult knots are what keep an individual entangled in their preferences, desires and fears. Both knowledge and action are needed to work out the knots and transcend their restrictions.
Akrodha is a Sanskrit term meaning “absence of anger.” In yoga, akrodha is regarded as a virtuous and beneficial quality, and it is often referenced in yogic literature. Both Hinduism and Buddhism see akrodha as one of the 10 freedoms needed for a person to live a good life.
Anger is said to interfere with reason and prevent contentment, so akrodha is necessary in order to allow a person to live a rational, peaceful life. It is also said to be impossible for a person to fully live their dharma, or right way of living, without experiencing akrodha.