Tag Archives: civilization

Civilizations {7} ~ The Indus Valley Civilization

~The Indus Valley Civilization (also known as the Harappan Civilization) was a Bronze Age society extending from modern northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

~The civilization developed in three phases: Early Harappan Phase (3300 BCE-2600 BCE), Mature Harappan Phase (2600 BCE-1900 BCE), and Late Harappan Phase (1900 BCE-1300 BCE).

~Inhabitants of the ancient Indus River valley developed new techniques in handicraft, including Carnelian products and seal carving, and metallurgy with copper, bronze, lead, and tin.

~Sir John Hubert Marshall led an excavation campaign in 1921-1922, during which he discovered the ruins of the city of Harappa. By 1931, the Mohenjo-daro site had been mostly excavated by Marshall and Sir Mortimer Wheeler. By 1999, over 1,056 cities and settlements of the Indus Civilization were located.

Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldcivilization/chapter/the-indus-river-valley-civilization/

Civilizations {6} ~ The Egyptians ~ The First Intermediate Period

~The First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time in history, when rule of Egypt was roughly divided between two competing power bases. One of those bases resided at Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt, a city just south of the Faiyum region. The other resided at Thebes in Upper Egypt.

~The Old Kingdom fell due to problems with succession from the Sixth Dynasty, the rising power of provincial monarchs, and a drier climate that resulted in widespread famine.

~Little is known about the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties due to a lack of evidence, but the Seventh Dynasty was most likely an oligarchy, while Eighth Dynasty rulers claimed to be the descendants of the Sixth Dynasty kings. Both ruled from Memphis.

~The Heracleopolitan Kings saw periods of both violence and peace under their rule, and eventually brought peace and order to the Nile Delta region.

~Siut princes to the south of the Heracleopolitan Kingdom became wealthy from a variety of agricultural and economic activities, and acted as a buffer during times of conflict between the northern and southern parts of Egypt.

~The Theban Kings enjoyed a string of military successes, the last of which was a victory against the Heracleopolitan Kings that unified Egypt under the Twelfth Dynasty.

Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldcivilization/chapter/the-first-intermediate-period/

Civilizations {5} ~ The Chavin

~The Chavín civilization developed in the northern Andean highlands of Peru between 900-250 BCE.

~There were three stages of development: Urabarriu (900-500 BCE), Chakinani (500-400 BCE), and Jarabarriu (400-250 BCE).

~Chavín had a small, powerful elite that was legitimized through a claim to divine authority.

~The chief example of Chavín architecture is the Chavín de Huántar temple, the design of which displays a complex and innovative adaptation to the highland environment of Peru.

~The Chavín people showed advanced knowledge of acoustics, metallurgy, soldering, and temperature control. One of their main economic resources was ch’arki, or llama jerky.

~Chavín art represents the first widespread, recognizable artistic style in the Andes, and can be divided into two phases: the first phase corresponds to the construction of the “Old Temple” at Chavín de Huántar (c. 900-500 BCE); the second phase corresponds to the construction of Chavín de Huántar’s “New Temple” (c. 500-200 BCE).
Significant pieces of art include the Lanzón, Tello Obelisk, and tenon heads.

Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldcivilization/chapter/the-chavin-civilization/

Civilizations {3} ~ The Assyrians

~Centered on the Upper Tigris river in northern Mesopotamia, the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times, the last of which grew to be the largest and most powerful empire the world had yet seen.

~At its peak, the Assyrian empire stretched from Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea to Persia, and from the Caucasus Mountains (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan) to the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt. It was at the height of technological, scientific, and cultural achievements for its time.

~In the Old Assyrian period, Assyria established colonies in Asia Minor and the Levant, and asserted itself over southern Mesopotamia under king Ilushuma.

~Assyria experienced fluctuating fortunes in the Middle Assyrian period, with some of its kings finding themselves under the influence of foreign rulers while others eclipsed neighboring empires.

~Assyria became a great military power during the Neo-Assyrian period, and saw the conquests of large empires, such as Egyptians, the Phoenicians, the Hittites, and the Persians, among others.

~After its fall in the late 600s BCE, Assyria remained a province and geo-political entity under various empires until the mid-7th century CE.

Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldcivilization/chapter/the-sumerians/

Poetry {17} ~ CIVILIZATIONAL COLLAPSE

Civilizations proliferate then fall

Is the doom coming for us all?

Humans itch to run before they can crawl

We delude ourselves into thinking we have choices and we are free

They are coming for thee

Chopping at the root of a decaying tree

As always happens when studying ancient history

The winner tells his story, much remains a mystery

Withstanding a few hundred years

Deterioration creeping in as fallen tears

Out of barabrianism, a renaissance

One by one the petals of the rose

Shrivel and fade, all it’s plendour goes

Wearing a different face to match each atrocity

Inventing addictions within inner cities

Their petals on the world to waste

When will we learn to grow not in haste?

~DiosRaw 06/04/21

Civilizations {2} ~ The Sumerians

~The Sumerians were a people living in Mesopotamia from the 27th-20th century BCE.

~The major periods in Sumerian history were the Ubaid period (6500-4100 BCE), the Uruk period (4100-2900 BCE), the Early Dynastic period (2900-2334 BCE), the Akkadian Empire period (2334 – 2218 BCE), the Gutian period (2218-2047 BCE), Sumerian Renaissance/Third Dynasty of Ur (2047-1940 BCE), and then decline.

~Many Sumerian clay tablets have been found with writing. Initially, pictograms were used, followed by cuneiform and then ideograms.

~Sumerians believed in anthropomorphic polytheism, or of many gods in human form that were specific to each city-state.

~Sumerians invented or perfected many forms of technology, including the wheel, mathematics, and cuneiform script.

Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldcivilization/chapter/the-sumerians/

Did You Know {4} ~ What Is The World’s Oldest Civilization?

Although the people who settled in Mesopotamia are often credited as the first civilization, new research shows that Aboriginal Australians are the oldest known civilization on Earth. The Aborigines can trace their ancestries back to about 75,000 years ago, but became a distinct genetic group around 50,000 years ago. They are believed to have first settled in Australia between 40,000 – 31,000 years ago and are the direct ancestors of a large group of modern-day Australians.

The discovery of the human remains from Lake Mungo in New South Wales, Australia in 1969 show signs of being one of the oldest known cremations. The remains, which are known as the Mungo Woman, have been dated to about 24,700 – 19,030 years ago.