Anumana is a Sanskrit word that means “inference” or “knowledge that follows.” It is one of the pramanas, or sources of correct knowledge, in Indian philosophy. Anumana is using observation, previous truths and reason to reach a new conclusion and truth. A simple example is observing smoke and inferring that there must be fire.

Anumana consists of five steps: a hypothesis (pratijna), reason (hetu), an example (udaharana), reaffirmation (upanaya) and conclusion (nigamana). The hypothesis is conditionally true if there are positive examples and an absence of counter-evidence.

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